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Republic of the Philippines
Polytechnic University of the Philippines
Sta. Mesa, Manila
NDC Compound, Sta. Mesa, Manila

Instruction Research Extension Production
Computer Hardware
Hardware is a comprehensive term for all of the physical parts of a computer, as distinguished from the data it contains or operates on, and the software that provides instructions for the hardware to accomplish tasks. The boundary between hardware and software is slightly blurry - firmware is software that is "built-in" to the hardware, but such firmware is usually the province of computer programmers and computer engineers in any case and not an issue that computer users need to concern themselves with. A typical computer (Personal Computer, PC) contains in a desktop or tower case the following parts: Motherboard which holds the CPU, main memory and other parts, and has slots for expansion cards power supply - a case that holds a transformer, voltage control and fan storage controllers, of IDE, SCSI or other type, that control hard disk , floppy disk, CD-ROM and other drives; the controllers sit directly on the motherboard (on-board) or on expansion cards graphics controller that produces the output for the monitor the hard disk, floppy disk and other drives for mass storage interface controllers (parallel, serial, USB, Firewire) to connect the computer to external peripheral devices such as printers or scanners Categories:

Motherboard - A motherboard is the central or primary circuit board making up a computer system or other complex electronic system Storage - The terms storage or memory refer to those parts of a computer that retain data for some period of time, possibly even after the computer is turned off Input/output devices - or I/O, refers to the interfaces that different functional units of a system use to communicate among each other, or to the signals sent through those interfaces Hardware and Software Comparison:

Devices that are required to store and execute (or run) the software. Collection of instructions that enables a user to interact with the computer. Software is a program that enables a computer to perform a specific task, as opposed to the physical components of the system (hardware). Types:

Input,storage,processing,control, and output devices.
System software, Programming software, and Application software. Examples:
CD-ROM, monitor, printer, video card, scanners , label makers, routers , and modems. Quickbooks, Adobe Acrobat, Winoms-Cs, Internet Explorer ,Microsoft Word , Microsoft Excel Function:
Hardware serve as the delivery system for software solutions. The hardware of a computer is infrequently changed, in comparison with software and data, which are “soft” in the sense that they are readily created, modified, or erased on the comput To perform the specific task you need to complete. Software is generally not needed to for the hardware to perform its basic level tasks such as turning on and reponding to input. Inter dependency:

Hardware starts functioning once software is loaded.
To deliver its set of instructions, Software is installed on hardware. Failure:
Hardware failure is random. Hardware does have increasing failure at the last stage. Software failure is systematic. Software does not have an increasing failure rate. Durability:
Hardware wears out over time.
Software does not wear out over time. However, bugs are discovered in software as time passes. Nature:
Hardware is physical in nature.
Software is logical in nature.

Input and Output Devices
Before a computer can process your data, you need some method to input the data into the machine. The device you use will depend on what form this data takes (be it text, sound, artwork, etc.). Similarly, after the computer has processed your data, you often need...