University of Essex Department of Psychology Cognitive Psychology Depth Lab report Title: The effect of the lack of binocular cues in the skilled action performance and the possible gender difference.
Words:2446(Without Abstract and References)
Binocular and monocular vision are both important but, what about skill visual tasks? , which one is more important? In this experiment we tried to test the importance of binocular information and we hypothesized that there would be a binocular benefit, like in Read’s experiment (.Jenny C. A. Read, Shah Farzana Begum, Alice McDonald, Jack Trowbridge, 2013).A Buzz-wire test was used; the participants had to drive a loop through a wire-track that produced a buzz- noise that was marked down by the experimenters as an error. Furthermore, after understanding that many sensory processes differ between males and females and being enforced by biological findings and the developmental hunter- gatherer theory, we decide to search simultaneously for any sex differences. Unfortunately we did not find in any of our tests any statistically significant difference.
Humans like other predators have a frontal eye layer. Their eyes have averagely 6,5mm distance, which allows them to use both monocular and binocular cues in their perception of the external environment .Monocular cues like size, perspective, occlusion, accommodation and depth of motion is the reason why ,even with only one eye opened, we still have the perception of depth. However, with the use of both eyes we experience a more detailed perception of depth, as the brain receives two visual outputs with slight ly different discrepancies for the same object that converge into one ,giving us the vivid sense of three-dimensionality. In our study we will examine how efficient is the binocular vision compared to monocular vision in tasks- managing, including the use of tools (.James T. McIlwain, 1996). Read et al (2013) have already examined the difference of binocular and monocular vision in manual-dexterity tasks by comparing the performance of the participants in three different tests ( Morrisby Fine Dexterity,a modified version of Morrisby tests by using fingers instead and the buzz-wire test. ).We used only the Buzz-wire test, the one that had after all the most significant difference and we hypothesize that we will find, as well a binocular benefit. Despite of the difference in performance between the binocular and monocular vision, attention was, also drawn in a possible sex difference. Generally, in the literature we can see a lack of interest in the ‘’initial’’ stages of the visual procedure, even though other cognitive and perceptual abilities have been tested to explore possible differences. There are some strong implications indicating, that there would be a gender difference, if we consider that for other sensations, like auditory, olfactory and somatic-sensory, it has been proved that males and females have a physiologically different structures. Specifically, the levels of androgens were demonstrated to be in both rats and humans as ‘’more concentrated in the forebrain is in the cerebral cortex and not in the hypothalamus and the limbic areas’’, concluding that the androgen binding receptors might influence the visual functioning. There are conclusive evidences that the androgen DHT , and not the estrogen, discrepancy are responsible for the time length of the cell death in the primary visual cortex of rats and as a result males tend to have around 20% more neurons in that cortical area. Moreover, the androgen receptor m RNA and AR expressing cells have higher density levels in males compare to the females and this difference in the androgen receptors may...
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