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1.Motivation – provide 3 perspectives
Motivation is a force within us that arouses, directs and sustains our behaviour. According to Rabideau (2005) motivation can be defined as the driving force behind all the actions of an individual. The influence of an individual's needs and desires both have a strong impact on the direction of their behaviour. Arousal is about the energy that drives your behaviour, the arousal theory of motivation suggests that people are motivated to engage in behaviours that help them maintain their optimal level of arousal. For example, an employee’s behaviour in a new job may be led by their desire to impress management. The second part of the definition is about the choice made between different behaviours to achieve your goals. For example, there could be many different methods which could be used to create a favourable impression with management such as complimenting their work ethic, staying extra hours and going beyond what is expected. The third part of the definition is how long you persist to achieve your goal, to sustain behaviour. For example, if you give up on impression management shortly after successful achieving your goal by impressing management, you are less motivated than those that persist until achieving their goal, particularly those that put a lot of effort to it over a long period of time (Werner, 2011). 2.Why is it important for managers to motivate their employees? It is important for managers to motivate their employees because high levels of motivation are important contributors to high performance. Employees which are highly-motivated produce work of a higher quality and put more effort towards their work. An environment where employees are motivated and satisfied with their work performance leads to an interest to help fellow colleagues, work harmony and workforce stability (Werner, 2011). Managers need to understand their employees and what motivates them on an individual level. Employees would need to be motivated in different ways because people respond differently to different methods used by managers. In order to understand what motivates employees, a manager must find out what those employees needs are, what goals they have set for themselves and they need to discuss with the employee how they are going to achieve those goals. Managers may lack knowledge in implementing successful motivational programs that increase production and create a positive work environment. Although there are many types of motivation, management must identify with their employees on an individual/personal level for programs to be successful. The goal of every manager is to increase production and efficiency to reach maximum results for the organization. Motivation for better performance depends on job satisfaction, achievement, recognition, and professional growth (Boyett and Boyett, 2000). If an employee has a deficiency, lacking something that is of value to a particular employee at that point in time, it could cause an employee to behave in a certain way which may hinder their work performance. Effective managers need to address an employee’s deficiency and enable them to fulfil their individual need and contribute to achieving the goals of the organisation (Werner, 2011). 3.What are the content theories of motivation, and what do you understand about them? There are three content theories of motivation which focuses on what motivates an individual, namely: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory; Alderfer’s ERG theory and McClelland’s learned theory needs. The content theories describe how people are motivated. The Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs consists of five categories are sometimes explained through a pyramid with the largest, most fundamental human needs starting at the bottom and the need for self-actualisation being at the top. Motivational needs need to be achieved in the workplace for employees to advance in the organisation. Employers need to recognise if their employees...
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